UROLOGY URO-SURGERY IN INDIA
These are some common urology conditions, arranged according to the organ involved.
Kidney and Ureter Conditions
Kidney cancer can cause pain, blood in urine and sometimes a feeling of fullness or compression in the abdomen. However, in many occasions, it may not cause any symptoms. It is best diagnosed with a CT scan or ultrasound examination. An urologist will perform an ultrasound test as part of his examination of the patient in his clinic. Urology management of kidney cancer ranges from surgical removal ( nephrectomy ) of part or entire kidney and percutaneous ablation.
Symptoms of pyelonephritis or kidney infection are fever and pain over the affected kidney (back pain). The urologist manages these infections with antibiotics and ultrasound or CT scan to ensure response. In some cases, the infection may progress and require surgery to drain any pus that may have accumulated in pyelonephritis.
Kidney and Ureter stones
Urinary stones originate from the kidney and may migrate in to the ureter. Stones causing obstruction may result in severe pain and complications such as infection and kidney damage. Stone treatment includes medication to dissolve certain type of urine stone. Shock wave is commonly used to treat larger kidney or ureter stones. Surgery by endoscope and laser is done for more complicated ureter stones.
Kidney cyst is a common urology condition and is usually of congenital origin. Most cysts should be evaluated by a detailed CT scan to determine the exact size and nature of the cyst. The urologist would observe cysts with suspicious character and may suggest surgical removal if there is possibility of cancer changes. Large number of cysts may replace the kidney resulting in long-term kidney failure.
Prostate enlargement or benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH )
Prostate enlargement is a very common urology condition in elderly men. BPH is a non-cancer enlargement of the prostate, typically affecting males from 50 years old. Symptoms include difficulty in passing urine and frequent passage of urine in either day or night. Treatment includes prescription of medications to decease prostate enlargement. Endoscope surgery or laser prostate surgery to remove part of the enlarged prostate is another alternative.
Prostate cancer may not be associated with any symptoms at all during the early stage. Early stage cancer is potentially curable by laparoscopic prostatectomy surgery or radiation. Early diagnosis from blood test by Prostate Specific Antigen or PSA is advised for men above 50 years old. Advanced prostate cancer can still be effectively controlled by hormone therapy.
Prostatitis or prostate inflammation
Inflammation of the prostate gland may occur suddenly resulting in acute prostatitis. It causes pain in the scrotum, penis, lower abdomen and anus in addition to fever and general lethargy. This must be treated urgently by the urologist with intravenous antibiotics. Sometimes, it may progress to chronic inflammation or chronic prostatitis. This is a prolongation of the above symptoms but in a much milder form and might even last several months. Urology management can be complicated and include long-term antibiotics, anti-inflammation drugs and drugs to relax the prostate.
Blood in urine, either visible or detected by urine tests, may suggest bladder cancer. Diagnosis is confirmed by performing a cystoscopy examination and biopsy of the bladder. The urologist can perform this simple examination under local anesthesia. Early bladder cancer can be effectively treated by endoscopy removal of the tumor and infusion of chemotherapy agents directly in to the bladder, avoiding other major side effects of chemotherapy.
Bladder infection or cystitis
Bladder infection is a commoner urology condition in females than males due to a shorter urinary tube in the female. In any case, they require antibiotics treatment. All urinary tract infections in male and frequent infections in female (more than 2 in a year) should be investigated by the urologist. Urology evaluation includes scans of the kidney and cystoscopy examination of the bladder and functional study of the bladder and process of urination.
Large stones may form in the bladder as a result of chronic bladder infection or inefficient drainage of urine from the bladder. They may cause blood in the urine, pain during passage of urine and decreased urine flow. Stones of up to 5cm in size can be effectivelytreated by scope and laser surgery. The urologist would fragment the stone to sand particles before removal.
Urinary incontinence or leakage that occurs during coughing, sneezing, laughing or exercising is called stress urinary incontinence. Urology treatment includes pelvic floor exercises, oral medications (pills) or a simple tape surgery (usually for females). Frequent urination leading to leakage is called urge incontinence. This is corrected with bladder training exercises and medications. Night incontinence in children is called nocturnal enuresis and is managed by timed voiding and prescription of a short-term medication.